At a brewery in 1997, an operator confused filling nozzles for two commonly used acid cleaning agents and transferred nitric acid into a tank with P3, a proprietary phosphoric acid based cleaner that also contained 5-15 percent isopropanol. 10-15 minutes later the mixture exploded violently. The stainless steel tank disintegrated with such force that fragments lodged in walls of concrete. The explosion ravaged the cellar, destroyed equipment, blew out a masonry wall and released large amounts of nitrous oxide fumes. Likely, 62 percent nitric acid (CAS 7697-37-2) and isopropanol (2-propanol, CAS 67-63-0) reacted to produce isopropyl nitrate (nitric acid 1-methylethyl ester, CAS 1712-64-7), a rocket propellant. It is argued that the accident has broad learning potential because of the widespread usage of the two chemicals across industries, the innocent nature of the human error and the severity of the consequence.  CLICK HERE to read report.

  1. Metallurgical Evaluation of a Nurse Tank Cracked Head (Failure was SCC)


  3. 2015 Lessons Learned with HAZMAT UNLOADING accidents

  4. Cryogenic tank for liquefied carbon dioxide ruptured (Lack of Car-Seal Program)

  5. PHMSA to Hold Advisory Committee Vote on Rulemaking Proposal for Excess Flow Valves

  6. Dramatic Explosion @ Natural Gas Processing Plant (Video)

  7. Chlorine Institute offers HCl DVD Now Available for FREE

  8. Chlorine Institute offers New HYPO DVD Now Available for FREE

  9. SAFETY NOTICE: Welding on Cargo Tanks

  10. DOT issues warning about some nurse tanks (SP-16239)

  11. FAMOUS Cargo Tank Failure (Safety Alert)

  12. Forearmed is Forewarned, REVISING the NFPA 704 may make sense!

  13. New Edition of CI PPE Pamphlet 65 Available

  14. Review of HAZMAT Unloading/Loading risks (PHMSA)

  15. Unloading HAZMAT accident - WRONG TANK (NTSB DCA99MZ006)
  16. Unloading HAZMAT accident - WRONG TANK (NTSB DCA99MZ003)
  17. Receiving and unloading bulk hazardous liquids in Kentucky
  18. Hazardous Materials: Flame Arrestors (USFA)
  19. Cargo Tank Motor Vehicle (CTMV) Loading/UnLoading operations: Recommended Best Practices Guide
  20. Recommended Non-Destructive Testing to Improve Nurse Tank Safety, Phases I and II
  21. Nitrogen Cylinder Failure Incident (TX FM Report)
  22. States and US Territories that have adopted International Codes (IMC, IFC, IBC, etc.)
  23. Industrial Commission of North Dakota Adopts New Standards to Improve Oil Transportation Safety
  24. Sulfuric Acid into Hydrochloric Acid tank (Unloading Incident)
  25. Is your propane cylinder SAFE? (PHMSA)
  26. Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With International Standards (RRR)
  27. Detonation or Deflagration? (USFA)
  28. Did you know... Ammonia (and Propane) gas is NOT white?
  29. HAZMAT Awareness - PLACARDS (video)
  30. How NOT to haul an industrial LPG tank! (Video)
  31. Ammonia Explosion 30 years ago this week
  32. 2013 HAZMAT Loading/Unloading Incidents
  33. NIOSH launches the NIOSH Center for Direct Reading and Sensor Technologies (NCDRST)
  34. U.S. DOT Announces Comprehensive Proposed Rulemaking for the Safe Transportation of Crude Oil, Flammable Materials (Releases new data on Bakken crude oil to support increased safety measures)
  35. BLEVE or Diesel Tank Exploding??
  36. OSHA’s TECHNICAL MANUAL on the LIMITATIONS of Explosibility (combustible gas) Sensors
  37. Commissioning of a LNG Storage Tank (Video)
  38. 2014 Video of the Week #16 (The power of NH3 inside a pressure vessel)
  39. Nurse Tank Safety and Compliance Advisory letter (2008 Reminder)
  40. Hazardous Materials: Cryogenic Fluids (USFA)
  41. Why ice accumulates on cryogenic system vaporizers (USFA)
  42. Hazardous Materials: Cargo Tank Motor Vehicle Loading and Unloading Operations
  43. PHMSA issues Safety Alert regarding crude oil being transported from the Bakken region
  44. Adoption of ASME Code Section XII and the National Board Inspection Code
  45. Company failed to report CL2 release in timely manner ($42K - truck unloaded to WRONG tank - reaction)
  46. CFATS FAQ: What is a thermal radiation zone?
  47. Safety and Security Plans for Class 3 Hazardous Materials Transported by Rail
  48. Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security: Listening Sessions
  49. Vehicle impact protection for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) exchange cages
  50. Natural Gas Line Excavation ignition caught on camera
  51. Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on Leak Repair Clamps Due to Defective Seal
  52. Ammonia Engine/Machinery Rooms and Hazardous Locations is NOT driven by PSM/RMP alone
  53. Reading Codes and Standards: Part 3
  54. Federal Railroad Administration Issues Emergency Order to Prevent Unintended Hazardous Materials Train Movement
  55. Reading Codes and Standards: Part 2
  56. Safety Alert: Risks Associated With Liquid Petroleum (LP) Gas Odor Fade (PHMSA)
  57. Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems
  58. Fire Code Permits (USFA)
  59. Liquefied natural gas road tanker explosion (BLEVE incident)
  60. Preliminary Findings of the U.S. Chemical Safety Board from its Investigation of the West Fertilizer Explosion and Fire
  61. Method of Measuring Nanoparticle Penetration through Protective Glove Materials under Conditions Simulating Workplace Use
  62. Guide for Safe Use of Isocyanates - An Industrial Hygiene Approach
  63. The mistakes made in West (Not OSHA's or EPA's)
  64. FREE Resources for Ammonium Nitrate Safety (NO EXCUSES!)
  65. Bulk Liquid Oxygen Separation (USFA)
  66. House Dems Ask GAO to Examine Oversight Gaps at West, TX & Similar Facilities Nationwide
  67. Has your state adopted the International Fire Code (IFC)?
  68. Storing Ammonium Nitrate in Ohio
  69. Ammonium Nitrate Sensitization (explaining one West, TX scenario)
  70. Increased Civil Penalties Take Effect for Those Who Knowingly Violate Federal Hazmat Laws and Regulations
  71. 2012 HAZMAT Loading/Unloading Incidents
  72. BLEVE - Cause and Effect
  73. UNLOADING HAZMAT to the wrong tank (CL2 Incident)
  74. Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedences of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure
  75. NEW DOT Shipping Papers REQUIREMENT EFFECTIVE 1/1/13
  76. The DOT 25' Attendant Rule
  77. FRA Safety Advisory - 2003-02 (Excess Flow Valves)
  78. Update on CL2 release @ Poultry Plant
  79. New Reports Recommend Improvements for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels Documentation     
  80. NH3 Fertilizer Compliance info from State of MI
  81. Revisions to the Tier I and II Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory Forms
  82. Compressed Gas Cylinder Color Coding
  83. Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars (Safety Advisory 2012–01)
  84. Ammonia kills woman driving thru cloud (Video - News Account)
  85. Albert City, Iowa Chicken Farm BLEVE (NFPA)
  86. MAJOR Bromine Rail Car Release (Video)
  87. ANOTHER Acetylene cylinder stored in a car
  88. Cylinder Transport
  90. Morris missile: Anhydrous ammonia nurse tank explosion
  91. FREE Training Resources for Responding to Ethanol Incidents
  92. Chlorine Institute offers FIVE more FREE Technical Publications
  93. Chemical Reactivity Worksheet
  94. DOT Revises the Requirements for Emergency Response Telephone Numbers
  95. DOT final rule sets design standards for PIH-carrying tank cars
  96. DOT issues a Nurse Tank Safety and Compliance Advisory letter
  97. Chemical Plant Security
  98. BLEVE Response and Prevention (Mechanical Engineering Queen’s University)
  99. House subcommittee sends chemical security bill, H.R.2868, to full committee
  100. PHMSA is amending the HAZMAT Regulations to maintain alignment with international standards
  101. DOT to Improve Safety Around Hazardous Material Loading and Unloading Operations
  102. Does the fuel inside generators being transported from one site to the next have to meet DOT HAZMAT requirements?
  103. DOT CHANGES the Security Plan Requirements (Revised List of Materials)
  104. HAZMAT UPDATE on Railroad Tankcar Designs
  105. Propane Cylinders - Important Pressure Relief Valve Information
  106. Storing forklift propane cylinders PROPERLY
  107. Acetylene Cylinder Safety

Screen Shot 2016 01 13 at 10.19.09 AMThe purpose of this project is to analyze a ruptured 1000 gallon NH3 tank to determine the crack initiation site (CIS) and the cause of the tank failure.  On 11/21/2007 it was reported that, “a nurse tank carrying anhydrous ammonia exploded and pieces were found laying in the front yard of a farm just outside of Silver Lake, Minnesota. The driver was taken to the hospital due to exposure to the NH3.” The incident occurred near Kale Avenue (McLeod County 90), just south of MTH 7.  A scene investigation revealed the tank had torn off its running gear, impacted the back of the pick-up truck (tow vehicle) and then was propelled across the front yard of a farm. All the NH3 had been expelled from the 1000 gallon capacity tank and dissipated. The tank is owned by Crop Production Services, Inc (CPS), (DOT # 300176).  CLICK HERE for 3rd Party Report

Recent investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) on USDOT specification cargo tank testing and repair facilities have resulted in a consistent pattern of non-compliance regarding bench testing of Pressure Relief Devices (PRD). Specifically, cargo tank testing and repair facilities are either failing to bench test PRDs or failing to test them appropriately by not determining the proper start-to-discharge and closing pressures.

In 2015 we saw six (6) unloading accidents that involved serious injuries to workers, with some of the workers injured being those who were in the WRONG place at the WRONG time.  Here is a summary of these six (6) incidents.  PLEASE take notice that 4 of the 6 incidents involved UNLOADING HOSES.  These temporary connections are almost always our weakest link in our process and such we MUST give these activities and their connections SPECIAL ATTENTION...


Repair work for liquefied carbon dioxide at a low-temperature storage tank (CE) in a steel mill was carried out. At the time, the main block valve below the safety valves was closed, while liquid CO2 remained in the tank. In addition, the heat source from the tank heater was still active. Therefore, in the tank, the temperature rose and pressure increased, and the low-temperature storage tank exploded. A vapor explosion of carbon dioxide occurred due to the rapid pressure drop.

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